Juvenile Diabetes Foundation

(Maharashtra Chapter)

Diet

Dietary control is very important in the treatment of diabetics. A regulated program of exercise and attention to personal hygiene are important to the total program. Diabetics needs a carefully planned diet depending on the type of diabetics, individual needs, body weight, age, sex, any other disease, and how physically active the person is.

Nutritional needs

Dietary control is an integral part of management for the diabetic. The diet should always provide the essentials of good nutrition and adjustments must be made from time to time for changing metabolic needs For example during growth, pregnancy, lactation or modified activity.

Proteins

Since diabetics in general have negative-nitrogen balance, they should receive about twice as much protein as normal subjects. The proteins should be of high biological value and provide about 20–25% of the calories in the diet. A diet high in protein is good for diabetics because

  1. It supplies the essential amino acids needed for tissue repair
  2. Protein does not raise the blood sugar during absorption, as do carbohydrates
  3. It does not supply as many calories as fats

Carbohydrates

The daily intake of carbohydrate should provide about 40% of the calories to prevent ketosis. Several studies have shown that raising the carbohydrates intake does not adversely affect blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance, or insulin requirements, provided that the total calorie intake is not increased. 

Fats

After protein and carbohydrate levels have been established, the fat allowance makes up the remaining calories for most diets. 30–35% of the calories as fat is satisfactory. Foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol should be limited. 

Fiber

Foods that are rich in fiber can reduce the rate of glucose absorption, lower blood sugar rise, decrease urinary glucose excretion, slower stomach emptying, and delay intestinal transit time. Fiber also contributes to satiety, and consequent decreased food intake helps reduce weight. Fiber containing complex carbohydrates that are slowly digested and absorbed such as pulses, brown rice, bread, chapatti, will produce less rise in blood sugar and less excretion of urinary sugar than an equivalent amount of carbohydrates taken as sugar in tea.

Fiber such as gum included with the diet is reported to reduce post-prandial glucose levels (after food) in blood. Studies have shown that gum present in fenugreek seeds (it contains 40% gum) is most effective in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gums. These types of dietary fiber are often recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes.

Calculation of Diabetic Diet

Let us assume that a diet is to be planned for a person who is 25 years old and 165 cm tall. According to her height, her desirable weight is 60 kg. Calories required for per kg of body weight is 30.

Calories 60 x 30 = 1800 kcal/day
Protein

20-25% of total calories

1800 x 20% = 360 kcal

360 kcal/4 = 90gm/day

Carbohydrate

40% of total calories

1800 x 40% = 720 kcal

720/4 = 180 gm/day

Fat

Total calories - calories from protein and carbohydrates

1800 - (360 + 720) = 720 kcal

720/9 = 80 gm fat/day

 

The bottom line

Use the Healthy Eating Plate and Healthy Eating Pyramid that are based on the latest and best science.

The Healthy Eating Plate

 

The Healthy Eating Pyramid

The Healthy Eating Pyramid is a simple, trustworthy guide to choosing a healthy diet. Its foundation is daily exercise and weight control, since these two related elements strongly influence your chances of staying healthy. The Healthy Eating Pyramid builds from there, showing that you should eat more foods from the bottom part of the pyramid (vegetables, whole grains) and less from the top (red meat, refined grains, potatoes, sugary drinks, and salt). 

When it’s time for dinner, most of us eat off of a plate. So think of the new Healthy Eating Plate as blueprint for a typical meal: Fill half your plate with produce—colorful vegetables, the more varied the better, and fruits. (Remember, potatoes and French fries don't count as vegetables!) Save a quarter of your plate for whole grains. A healthy source of protein, such as fish, poultry, beans, or nuts, can make up the rest. The glass bottle is a reminder to use healthy oils, like olive and canola, in cooking, on salad, and at the table. Complete your meal with a cup of water, or if you like, tea or coffee with little or no sugar (not the milk or other dairy products that the USDA’s MyPlate recommends; limit milk/dairy products to one to two servings per day). And that figure scampering across the bottom of the placemat? It’s your reminder that staying active is half of the secret to weight control. The other half is eating a healthy diet with modest portions that meet your calorie needs—so be sure you choose a plate that is not too large.