Juvenile Diabetes Foundation

(Maharashtra Chapter)

TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)



What Does it do?

Diabetics have a higher prevalence of thyroid disorders compared with the normal population. The presence of thyroid dysfunction may affect diabetes control. Thyroid dysfunction can produce significant metabolic disturbances in diabetic individuals. Therefore, regular screening for thyroid abnormalities in all diabetic patients will allow early treatment of subclinical thyroid dysfunction.

How To prepare for the test?

No test preparation is required prior to this test.

Normal Range:

Euthyroid: 0.5–5.0

Hyperthyroid (overactive thyroid): below 0.5

Hypothyroid (underactive thyroid): above 5.0




What Does it do?

It screens for a possible kidney disorder or for early damage to the kidneys in persons with diabetes.

How To prepare for the test?

No test preparation is required prior to this test. This urine test is done on the spot.

Normal Range:

Results of the microalbumin test are measured as milligrams (mg) of protein leakage. Generally:

Less than 30 mg is normal.

 Thirty to 300 mg indicates early kidney disease (microalbuminuria).

 More than 300 mg indicates more advanced kidney disease (macroalbuminuria).

CBC (complete blood count)



What Does it do?

It measures the numbers of the various types of cells found in your blood. Either increased or decreased numbers of different cells may suggest a problem, either one which may resolve itself or one which may require further tests and treatment.

How To prepare for the test?

There is no special preparation needed. Blood can be drawn at any time during the day and fasting prior to the test is not required.

Normal Range:

WBC - white blood cell count.

Adult Range:
SI units.
4.0 - 11.0 x 10*9 cells/L.
US units.
4,000 and 11,000 cells/ cu.mm (cubic millimetres) or /µl (per microlitre of blood)

WBC Differential.


Adult Range: 18 - 40%
Absolute value or Absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC):
720- 4400/µl or 0.72 - 4.4 x 10*9/L.
Children's Range: 25 - 50%
Absolute value or Absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC):
1000 - 5500/µl or 1.0 - 5.5 x 10*9/L.


Adult Range: 3 to 8%
Absolute value or Absolute monocyte count:
120 - 880/µl or 0.1 - 0.8 x 10*9/L.


Adult Range: 50 - 73%
Absolute value or Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC):
2,000 - 8,030/µl or 2.0 - 8.0 x 10*9/L.
Children's Range: 30 - 60%
Absolute value or Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC):
1200- 6600/µl or 1.2 - 6.6 x 10*9/L


Adult Range: 2 - 4%
Absolute value:
80 - 440/µl or 0.08 - 0.4 x 10*9/L.


Adult Range: 0.5 - 1%
Absolute value:
20 - 110/µl or 0.02 - 0.1 x 10*9/L.

RBC - red blood cell count

(varies with altitude):
Male: 4.7 to 6.1 million cells/µl (per microlitre of blood)
Female: 4.2 to 5.4 million cells/µl
Children: 4.6 - 4.8 million cells/µl

Red cell distribution width (RDW)



(varies with altitude):
Male - 8.1 to 11.2 mmol/L (13 to 18 gm/dL)
Female - 7.4 to 9.9 mmol/L (12 to 16 gm/dL)
Child - 7.1 to 8.4 mmol/L (11.5 to 13.5 gm/dL)
Newborns - 10.5 to 13.7 mmol/L (17 to 22 gm/dl)


(varies with altitude):
Newborn Range - 0.5 to 0.62 (50-62%)
Child - 0.33 to 0.40 (33-40%)
Adult male - 0.39 to 0.51 (39-51%)
Adult female 0.34 to 0.46 (34-46%)

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

Values are higher in newborns and infants.
Adult men 80-98 fl (femtoliters)
Adult Women: 96-108 fl

Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH)

27.5 - 33.5 pg/cell (picograms per cell)

Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

32 to 36 gm/dL
(this is sometimes reported in % i.e. 32-36%)

The platelet count

The normal range can be expressed in a number of ways, but they all mean the same.
150,000 - 350,000/µl ( platelets per microlitre)
150,000 - 350,000/ mm3 (platelets per cubic millimetre)
150 - 350 x 10*9/liter.

Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)

7.5-11.5 fl




What Does it do?

When the body is unable to process sugar correctly, it leads to blood vessel damages, which leads to fluid leakage into body tissues, including the retina. Visual impairment is a frequent complication of diabetes. This condition is called diabetic retinopathy. This eye test detects any damage to the eye retina due to diabetes.

How To prepare for the test?

No test preparation is required prior to this test. However, this test involves the use of medicated eyedrops to dilate or enlarge the pupil of the eye for a clearer examination of the eye. Hence, it is suggested to avoid any eye make-up prior to examination.

Normal Range:

Decided by the ophthalmologist

Lipid profile



What Does it do?

This test measures the different types of cholesterol and the amount of triglycerides in your blood. This allows your doctor to assess your risk of coronary heart disease. The lipid profile typically includes:

Total cholesterol

High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — often called good cholesterol

Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) —often called bad cholesterol


How To prepare for the test?

You need to fast 9–12 hours before the test.

Normal Range:

LDL Cholesterol

Optimal: Less than 100 mg/dL (2.59 mmol/L)

Near/above optimal: 100-129 mg/dL (2.59-3.34 mmol/L)

Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL (3.37-4.12 mmol/L)

High: 160-189 mg/dL (4.15-4.90 mmol/L)

Very high: Greater than 190 mg/dL (4.90 mmol/L)

Total Cholesterol

Desirable: Less than 200 mg/dL (5.18 mmol/L)

Borderline high: 200-239 mg/dL (5.18 to 6.18 mmol/L)

High: 240 mg/dL (6.22 mmol/L) or higher

HDL Cholesterol

Low level, increased risk: Less than 40 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L) for men and less than 50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L) for women

Average level, average risk: 40-50 mg/dL (1.0-1.3 mmol/L) for men and between 50-59 mg/dl (1.3-1.5 mmol/L) for women

High level, less than average risk: 60 mg/dL (1.55 mmol/L) or higher for both men and women


Fasting Triglycerides

Desirable: Less than 150 mg/dL (1.70 mmol/L)

Borderline high: 150-199 mg/dL(1.7-2.2 mmol/L)

High: 200-499 mg/dL (2.3-5.6 mmol/L)

Very high: Greater than 500 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L)